The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of natural Antarctic ice into a neutrino detector. The instrument detects 100,000 neutrinos per year in the GeV to PeV energy range. Among those we have recently isolated a flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos. I will discuss the instrument, the analysis of the data and the significance of the discovery of cosmic neutrinos.
Source: Department of Physics
Klaus Schulten of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign will present “Quantum Biology of Bird Navigation”
Quantum computing involving quantum state entanglement is all the rage nowadays. The use of quantum entanglement, apparently, had been discovered and used by living cells billion years ago. Its use in animals today is for navigation in the Earth magnetic field, for example, during the long flights of migratory birds. The birds use a protein, tellingly called cryptochrome as it was only discovered very recently. Cryptochrome absorbs weak blue light to produce two quantum-entangled electrons in the protein. Cryptochrome computes with the entanglement the direction of North and South, crucial for the bird keeping the proper flight direction even in bad weather and wind conditions. The lecture tells the story how quantum computing in the birds eyes was discovered over the last decades, starting with chemical test tube experiments and ending with showing that the animals’ navigational compass is in the eyes and can be affected by radio antennas. The story involves theoretical physicists who got their first paper rejected as “garbage”, million dollar laser experiments by physical chemists to measure the entangled electrons, ornithologists who want to talk to birds like Doctor Dolittle to figure out how they orient in the Earth magnetic field. Even though they could not actually talk to birds they learnt, jointly with the physicists, that the birds have in their eyes a chemical compass that in some ways works like a magnetic compass, but also differs from it in crucial ways.
Hosted by Ralf Bundschuh
Source: Department of Physics
Colloquium – Scott Wilks (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) – Fast Ignition: An Alternate Route to Inertial Confinement Fusion
Current Advances in Transoral Robotic Surgery – Enver Ozer M.D.
Colloquium Karin Musier-Forsyth (The Ohio State University) – Structural Insights Into Retroviral RNA Genomes
The 5’ untranslated region (5’-UTR) is a highly conserved region of retroviral RNA genomes responsible for regulating many steps of the retroviral lifecycle including viral RNA dimerization, packaging, initiation of reverse transcription, transcriptional regulation, and splicing. A complete understanding of the mechanisms controlling retroviral replication requires structural characterization of this RNA. Unfortunately, its large size and conformational flexibility renders common methods of solving structures, such as X-ray crystallography and NMR exceedingly difficult. Here, we use a solution technique, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), coupled with computational molecular modeling and structure probing, to characterize RNAs (100-350 nucleotides in length) derived from the 5’-UTR of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Similarities and differences in their packaging signals, the presence of tRNA structural mimicry, conformational switches upon dimerization and primer annealing, and length-dependent changes in global conformation will all be discussed.
Prof. Daniel Feezell, University of New Mexico – 3/30/16 9:45am 260 Dreese Laboratory
Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride Optoelectronic Materials and Devices
III-nitrides, including alloys of AlN, GaN, and InN, have revolutionized light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for solid-state lighting, diode lasers for projection and high-density optical data storage, and electronics for power switching. Despite these significant advances, III-nitride materials and devices remain relatively immature compared to conventional III-V semiconductors and numerous opportunities for research on complex materials challenges and novel device concepts still exist. Conventional III-nitride devices are grown on the polar c-plane of the wurtzite crystal and their performance is adversely affected by the presence of internal polarization-related electric fields. Alternatively, growth of III-nitride structures on nonpolar and semipolar orientations presents a viable approach to reducing or eliminating the issues associated with polarization-related electric fields. These orientations also offer increased design flexibility and provide a multitude of unique physical properties. In this talk, I will highlight the unique properties and advantages of nonpolar and semipolar III-nitrides, present two techniques for the epitaxial growth of these materials, and discuss the application of this platform to important optoelectronic devices, including LEDs, edge-emitting lasers, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs).
Daniel Feezell is an Assistant Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and the Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM) at the University of New Mexico (UNM). Dr. Feezell received the Ph.D. degree in 2005 at the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) for work on long-wavelength InP-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Prior to joining UNM, he was a Project Scientist in the Solid-State Lighting and Energy Center at UCSB and a Senior Device Scientist and the first employee at Soraa, Inc. where he worked on III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and diode lasers. His current research interests include epitaxial growth, fabrication, and characterization of III-nitride materials and devices, including nonpolar and semipolar orientations; solid-state lighting and high-efficiency LEDs; nanoscale selective-area epitaxy; and edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. In 2013, he received a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Young Faculty Award, with a Director’s Fellowship Extension in 2015. He also received a National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award in 2015. Dr. Feezell is a Senior Member of IEEE and the Sources Thrust Leader in the Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center (ERC). He has authored or co-authored over 70 journal and conference publications and holds several U.S. patents. Additional information can be found at http://www.feezellgroup.com
Antimonide Materials for Mid-Infrared Photonic Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays
Director, Center for High Technology Materials, Professor and Regents’ Lecturer, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico
Infrared imaging (3-25mm) has been an important technological tool for the past sixty years since the first report of infrared detectors in 1950s. There has been a dramatic progress in the development of infrared antimonide based detectors and low power electronic devices in the past decade with new materials like InAsSb, InAs/GaSb superlattices and InAs/InAsSb superlattices demonstrating very good performance. One of the unique aspects of the 6.1A family of semiconductors (InAs, GaSb and AlSb) is the ability to engineer the bandstructure to obtain designer band-offsets. Our group (www.krishnairlab.com) has been involved with the vision of the 4th generation of infrared detectors and is one of two university laboratories in the country that can undertake “Design to Camera” research and realize focal plane arrays.
My talk will revolve around three research themes.
The first theme involves the fundamental investigation into the material science and device physics of the antimonide systems. I will describe some of the challenges in these systems including the identification of defects that limit the performance of the detector. The use of “unipolar barrier engineering” to realize high performance infrared detectors and focal plane arrays will be discussed.
The second theme will involve the vision of the 4th Gen infrared imaging systems. Using the concept of a bio-inspired infrared retina, I will make a case for an enhanced functionality in the pixel. The key idea is to engineer the pixel such that it not only has the ability to sense multimodal data such as color, polarization, dynamic range and phase but also the intelligence to transmit a reduced data set to the central processing unit. The design and demonstration of meta-infrared detectors will be discussed.
In the final theme, I will describe the role of infrared imaging in bio-medical diagnostics. In particular, I will highlight some work on using infrared imaging in the early detection of skin cancer and for detection of flow in cerebral shunts. Using dynamic thermal imaging on over 100 human subjects, a sensitivity >95% and specificity >83% has been demonstrated. Commercialization of this technology will also be discussed.
Sanjay Krishna is the Director of the Center for High Technology Materials and Professor and Regents Lecturer in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of New Mexico. Sanjay received his M.S. from IIT, Madras, MS in Electrical Engineering in 1999 and PhD in Applied Physics in 2001 from the University of Michigan. He joined UNM as a tenure track faculty member in 2001. He currently heads a group of 15 researchers involved with the development of next generation infrared imagers. Sanjay received the Gold Medal from IIT, Madras, Ralph Powe Junior Faculty Award, IEEE Outstanding Engineering Award, ECE Department Outstanding Researcher Award, School of Engineering Jr Faculty Teaching Excellence Award, NCMR-DIA Chief Scientist Award for Excellence, the NAMBE Young Investigator Award, IEEE-NTC, SPIE Early Career Achievement Award and the ISCS Young Scientist Award. He was also awarded the UNM Teacher of the Year and the UNM Regents Lecturer award. Sanjay has more than 200 peer-reviewed journal articles (h-index=42), two book chapters and seven issued patents. He is the co-founder and CTO of Skinfrared, a UNM start-up involved with the use of IR imaging for dual use applications including early detection of skin cancer. He is a Fellow of IEEE, OSA and SPIE.
IMR Distinguished Lecture Series presents
21.25% World Efficiency Record with Multi-Crystalline p-type Silicon Solar Cells: Closing the Gap with n-type Mono
Vice President, Chief Scientist and Vice-Chair of State Key Laboratory, Trina Solar
Friday, June 17, 10:00 AM
E525 Scott Laboratory, 201 West 19th Avenue, Reception to follow
Multicrystalline Silicon technologies represents more than 65% of 2015 global shipments. Over the last two years, the best p-type multicrystalline silicon solar cells developed by Trina Solar have reached new efficiency records, up to 20.86% in 2014 and 21.25% in 2015. These achievements result from improvements of all aspects of the solar cell fabrication: contamination control, development of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon wafers, cell design and process optimization. Analysis show that efficiencies above 22% are possible with p-type multicrystalline and could be reached in the next few years.
Pierre J. Verlinden is Vice-President and Chief Scientist at Trina Solar, the world’s largest PV manufacturer. He is also Vice-Chair of the State Key Laboratory of PV Science and Technology. Dr. Verlinden has been working in the field of photovoltaics for more than 35 years and has published over 170 technical papers and contributed to a number of books. Before joining Trina Solar, Dr. Verlinden served as Chief Scientist or head of R&D department in several other PV companies in USA and Australia, including SunPower, Origin Energy, Amrock and Solar Systems.
The Ohio State University Mathematical Biosciences Institute (MBI) Colloquia
The Ohio State University Mathematical Biosciences Institute (MBI) Colloquia
Announces a Presentation by:
Michael L. Shuler, Ph.D.
Samuel B. Eckert Professor of Engineering
Director, Nanobiotechnology Center (NBTC)
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Title: Modeling Life
We seek to construct physical and mathematical models of life. Such models allow us to test our understanding of how living systems function and how they respond to human imposed stimuli. One sys-tem is a genomically and chemically complete model of a minimal cell. This cell is a hypothetical bacte-rium with the fewest number of genes possible. Such a minimal cell provides a platform to ask about the essential features of a living cell and forms a platform to investigate “synthetic biology.” A second system is “Body-on-a-Chip” (or microphysiological system) which is a microfabricated, microfluidic system with cells or tissue constructs representing various organs in the body. That physical model is based on a phys-iologically based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamics (PBPK-PD) model. The ratio of organ sizes and the flow to each component is physiological. It can be constructed from human or animal cells and used in drug discovery development, or to predict response to exposure to environmental chemicals. Both the computer and the physical models provide insight into the underlying biology and provide new tools to make use of the understanding to provide benefits to society.
About the speaker:
Michael L. Shuler is the Eckert Professor of Engineering in the Meinig Department of Biomedi-cal Engineering and in the School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at Cornell University, and Director of Cornell’s Nanobiotechnology Center. Shuler has degrees in chemical engineering (BS, Notre Dame, 1969 and Ph.D., Minnesota, 1973) and has been a faculty member at Cornell University since 1974. Shuler’s research includes development of “Body-on-a-Chip” for testing pharmaceuticals for toxicity and efficacy, creation of production systems for useful compounds, such as paclitaxel from plant cell cultures, and construction of whole cell models relating genome to physiology. Shuler is CEO and President of Hesperos, a company founded to implement the “Body-on-a-Chip” system. Shuler and F. Kargi have authored a popular textbook, “Bioprocess Engineering; Basic Concepts”. Shuler has been elected to the National Academy of Engineering and the American Academy of Arts and Science and has received numerous other awards.
Energy and Environment Discovery Themes Seminar
Ardeshir Contractor, Founder and CEO, Kiran Energy
Factors Influencing Product Innovation in Solar Energy Markets
Tuesday, February 7, 2017
2:00 – 3:30 PM
Mason Hall, 2nd Floor Rotunda, 250 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210
Reception immediately following program
Registration: Discovery Themes Survey RSVP
Co-sponsored by the Materials and Manufacturing for Sustainability Discovery Theme focus area, Institute for Materials Research and Fisher College of Business
In 2010, Ardeshir Contractor raised $80M from three US private equity investors and a joint venture with First Solar to build Kiran Energy – a solar energy utility at the forefront of India’s solar energy market. In its journey, the company examined and deployed multiple innovative products seeking higher performance with leap-frog cost economics and also set early benchmarks in non-recourse project financing.
This talk will focus on both product innovation in solar energy and innovation in sustainability financing. The size of the solar energy market is significant – nearing an annual investment in solar energy new power plants of $250B. Solar modules, inverters, monitoring systems, and storage comprise most of this number. The addressable market for the introduction of new solar technology or product innovation is very large and allows for immense scalability. The solar market is truly global both in terms of markets and suppliers.
Product innovation in solar energy
The seminar will include a review of effective product introductions, many of which exhibit similar characteristics of product astuteness and a drive to forward-looking performance and commercial targets. Not all successes have been smooth, some of the leaders have had setbacks including unforeseen technical issues. The large amounts of investment required for manufacturing and selling implied a constant requirement to maintain the path and story of strong financial returns. Blending aggressive technology and commercial innovation appears to have worked. It is useful to examine how such dual innovation is embedded in a product offering.
Innovation in sustainability financing
Solar energy components and systems are expected to function for 20-30 years and the overlay of bankability and financing are critical especially for innovative technology. The long-term nature of the finance and returns – coupled with the very scale of the explosive investment needs – has required the development of new financial market products and market sources. Very quickly the sustainable financing story has evolved from government and agency support to mainline financial markets. However, analytical processes and the banking institutions are still retooling for this. In addition, an asset that functions over such a long term would require financial evaluation and analysis methods that align with its characteristics. The approach is to describe these efforts, the evolution of sustainable financing and what it implies to product innovation.
Ardeshir Contractor chairs India’s solar energy task force at the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and partners with the government in developing policy, standards, and technological opportunity for Indian manufacture in solar. He is also an adjunct Research Associate with Edhec Infrastructure Institute, Singapore, investigating long term asset finance principles. In December 2015, he addressed the United Nations at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21), and he was deeply involved with the UN Environment Programme’s Enquiry on the design of a global sustainable financial system. Mr. Contractor has served on the boards of Nature India, Government Committees, and Clean Energy Ministerial. He received his Masters in Mechanical Engineering from The Ohio State University, was the recipient of the 2015 College of Engineering’s Distinguished Alumni Award, and is currently an Executive in Residence with the Institute for Materials Research.
Ohio State’s materials research engine and the Discovery Themes program it drives are helping to position Ohio State as a model 21st-century land-grant university focused on interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation. The depth and breadth of our faculty, the ingenuity of our students and the global reach of our partners is at the heart of Discovery at Ohio State.