Shell Undergraduate Research Experience Poster Session:
The School of Earth Sciences undergraduate majors participating in the 2017 Shell Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) internships will present the results of their summer research projects at a poster session on Thursday, August 3.
Students and their posters will be in 291 Mendenhall Laboratory (125 South Oval Dr) from 1:00 to 4:00 p.m. All are welcomed to attend.
Affiliation: Purdue University
Hosted by: Dr. Suo
Affiliation: University of Michigan
Hosted By: Professor Bharat Bhushan
Description: In this talk I will discuss the current work in my group on developing surfaces with extreme wettabilities, i.e. surfaces that are either completely wet by, or completely repel, different liquids. The first portion of the talk will cover the design of so called “superomniphobic surfaces” i.e. surfaces which repel all liquids. Designing and producing textured surfaces that can resist wetting by low surface tension liquids such as various oils or alcohols has been a significant challenge in materials science, and no examples of such surfaces exist in nature. As part of this work, I explain how re-entrant surface curvature, in addition to surface chemistry and roughness, can be used to design surfaces that cause virtually all liquids, including oils, alcohols, water, concentrated organic and inorganic acids, bases, solvents, as well as, viscoelastic polymer solutions to roll-off and bounce.
The second portion of my talk will cover the design of the first-ever reconfigurable membranes that, counter-intuitively, are both superhydrophilic (i.e., water contact angles @ 0°) and superoleophobic (i.e., oil contact angles > 150°). This makes these porous surfaces ideal for gravity-based separation of oil and water as they allow the higher density liquid (water) to flow through while retaining the lower density liquid (oil). These fouling-resistant membranes can separate, for the first time, a range of different oil–water mixtures, including emulsions, in a single-unit operation, with >99.9% separation efficiency, by using the difference in capillary forces acting on the oil and water phases. As the separation methodology is solely gravity-driven, it is expected to be one of the most energy-efficient technologies for oil-water separation.
I will also discuss surfaces with patterned wettability, where both wetting (omniphilic) and non-wetting (omniphobic) domains are fabricated on the same substrate. We use such substrates for fabricating monodisperse, multi-phasic, micro- and nano-particles possessing virtually any desired composition, projected shape, modulus, and dimensions as small as 25 nm. Finally, I will discuss some other areas of current and future research, including the development of ice-phobic coatings that offer one of the lowest reported adhesion strengths with ice.
Registration is limited to the first 40 registrants for each session.
Affiliation: GE Aviation, Cincinnati, OH
Hosted by: Professor Marcelo Dapino
Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Hosted by: Dr. Musier-Forsyth
Affiliation: Ulm University
Hosted by: Dr. Zhong
Wayne D. Kaplan is a full professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, where he holds the Karl Stoll Chair in Advanced Materials. Kaplan currently serves as the Executive Vice President for Research at the Technion. He completed his BSc in Mechanical Engineering, and his MSc and DSc in Materials at the Technion after immigrating to Israel from the U.S. He then spent a year as a Humboldt Fellow at the Max-Planck Institute in Stuttgart Germany before joining the Technion faculty in 1995.
During the past 20 years Kaplan’s research activities at the Technion have focused on the structure, chemistry and energy of interfaces between metals and ceramics, with a focus on the correlation between thermodynamics (continuum) approaches and the atomistic structure and chemistry of interfaces. In addition to his fundamental research in materials science, Kaplan works on the development of electron microscopy techniques for characterization at the sub-nanometer length-scale.
Kaplan is the author of more than 130 reviewed and archived scientific articles, as well as two textbooks: Joining Processes and Microstructural Characterization of Materials. In 2006 he received the Henry Taub Prize for Academic Excellence. He is a fellow of the American Ceramic Society, a member of the Israel Microscopy Society, and was an editor of the Journal of Materials Science (Springer).
Controlling grain size is a fundamental part of Materials Science and Engineering. While the driving force for grain growth is thought to be understood, the mechanism by which grain boundaries migrate, and how microscopic parameters affect grain boundary mobility, are less understood. This presentation focuses on the mobility of grain boundaries and how dopants and external fields influence the kinetics of grain growth.
The first part of the talk will address the concept of solute-drag, where conventional wisdom indicates that moving a solute cloud with a grain boundary should either slow down grain boundary motion (e.g. Mg in Al2O3), or not affect it. Model experiments at dopant levels below the experimentally determined solubility limit clearly show that some adsorbates reduce grain boundary mobility (the accepted solute-drag effect) whereas other increase grain boundary mobility (solute-acceleration). Reasons for the varying behavior are discussed within the framework of grain boundary disconnections as the mechanism by which grain boundaries move, and current approaches to understanding Gibbsian adsorption.
The second part of the talk reviews model experiments designed to probe the influence of external fields on grain boundary mobility. As a model system, polycrystalline SiC underwent conventional annealing, and annealing using spark plasma sintering (SPS) without pressure, and the grain size as a function of annealing time was characterized. From these experiments, the grain boundary mobility of SiC at 2100°C under conventional versus SPS annealing was determined. SPS annealing resulted in a grain boundary mobility which is three orders of magnitude larger than that resulting from conventional annealing. This indicates that the same (or similar) mechanism which promotes rapid sintering during SPS also significantly increases the rate of grain growth. This mechanism will be discussed in light of the “solute-acceleration” effect presented in the first part of the talk.
Affiliation: Encole Polytechnique de Fédérale de Lausanne
Hosted by: Dr. Wysocki